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Quarks are fundamental particles which have never been identified in isolation, and are only found as hadrons, held together by the strong force.

There are 6 types of quark: up, down, strange, charm, top, and bottom.

All quarks have a corresponding antiparticle, called an antiquark.

Quarks possess various properties, including having masses, charges, spins and undering both strong and weak interactions.[1]



Quarks have fractional charges, -1/3 or 2/3, depending on the type. Down, strange and bottom type quarks have -1/3e charges, making them down-type quarks, whereas up, top and charm quarks have 2/3e charges, making them up-type quarks. Baryons (qqq) or mesons (qq-), are composed, so that each combination of quarks in a baryon form a interger, but combinations of quarks in mesons leads to interger charges. Baryons can be made with many combinations of different quarks, whereas mesons are made of a particular quark and it's constituent antiquark. Antibaryons can also be formed, using three antiquarks. [2][3]


  1. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Particles/quark.html
  2. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Particles/quark.html
  3. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-inner-life-of-quarks-extreme-physics-special/
 - [1] - Quarks, hyperphysics [Internet], R.Nova, Published 2017 [cited Dec 2017]. Available from: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Particles/quark.html

 - [2] - The Inner Life Of Quarks [Internet], D. Lincoln, [cited Dec 2017]. Available from; 

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