RNA

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RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. RNA is made up of ribose, a five carbon sugar, and phosphate which forms the backbone. Attached to this backbone are 4 bases, in a similar way to DNA where cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G) and thymine (T) pairs with adenine (A), in RNA C pairs with G, but A pairs with uracil (U) instead of T.<ref>Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L, 2007, Biochemistry 6th edition, NY, W. H Freeman and Company, page 109</ref>
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RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. [[RNA|RNA]] is made up of [[Ribose|ribose]], a five carbon sugar, and phosphate which forms the backbone. Attached to this backbone are 4 bases, in a similar way to DNA where [[Cytosine|cytosine]] (C) pairs with [[Guanine|guanine]] (G) and [[Thymine|thymine]] (T) pairs with [[Adenine|adenine]] (A), in [[RNA|RNA]] C pairs with G, but A pairs with uracil (U) instead of T&nbsp;<ref>Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L, 2007, Biochemistry 6th edition, NY, W. H Freeman and Company, page 109</ref>.
  
== <br>RNA involved in gene expression ==
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== RNA involved in gene expression ==
  
1. mRNA – messenger RNA <ref>Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L, 2007, Biochemistry 6th edition, NY, W. H Freeman and Company, page 119</ref><br>  
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1. [[mRNA|mRNA]] – messenger RNA <ref>Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L, 2007, Biochemistry 6th edition, NY, W. H Freeman and Company, page 119</ref><br>  
  
&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - DNA is transcribed into mRNA, therefore the mRNA and the DNA are complementary<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - This mRNA is then used as a template for translation into a functioning protein<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - mRNA is also used to make copy DNA (cDNA)<br>2. tRNA – transfer RNA<ref>Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L, 2007, Biochemistry 6th edition, NY, W. H Freeman and Company, page 120</ref><br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - consists of a sequence of three bases and an associated amino acid<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - This molecule travels to the ribosome where a polypeptide is formed, the sequence of which was determined by the mRNA.<br>3. rRNA – ribosomal RNA&nbsp;<ref>Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L, 2007, Biochemistry 6th edition, NY, W. H Freeman and Company, page 120</ref><br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - This is the RNA found in ribosomes<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - It acts as a catalyst for protein synthesis
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&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - [[DNA|DNA]] is transcribed into [[mRNA|mRNA]], therefore the [[mRNA|mRNA]] and the [[DNA|DNA]] are complementary<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - This [[mRNA|mRNA]] is then used as a template for translation into a functioning protein<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - [[mRNA|mRNA]] is also used to make [[cDNA|copy DNA]] ([[cDNA|cDNA]])<br>2. tRNA – transfer RNA&nbsp;<ref>Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L, 2007, Biochemistry 6th edition, NY, W. H Freeman and Company, page 120</ref><br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - consists of a sequence of three bases and an associated amino acid<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - This [[Molecule|molecule]] travels to the ribosome where a [[Polypeptide|polypeptide]] is formed, the sequence of which was determined by the [[mRNA|mRNA]].<br>3. rRNA – ribosomal RNA&nbsp;<ref>Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L, 2007, Biochemistry 6th edition, NY, W. H Freeman and Company, page 120</ref><br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - This is the RNA found in [[Ribosomes|ribosomes]]<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - It acts as a catalyst for [[Proteins|protein]] synthesis<br>
  
 
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== References ==
 
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== References ==
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Revision as of 20:42, 16 November 2010

RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. RNA is made up of ribose, a five carbon sugar, and phosphate which forms the backbone. Attached to this backbone are 4 bases, in a similar way to DNA where cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G) and thymine (T) pairs with adenine (A), in RNA C pairs with G, but A pairs with uracil (U) instead of T [1].

RNA involved in gene expression

1. mRNA – messenger RNA [2]

               - DNA is transcribed into mRNA, therefore the mRNA and the DNA are complementary
               - This mRNA is then used as a template for translation into a functioning protein
               - mRNA is also used to make copy DNA (cDNA)
2. tRNA – transfer RNA [3]
             - consists of a sequence of three bases and an associated amino acid
             - This molecule travels to the ribosome where a polypeptide is formed, the sequence of which was determined by the mRNA.
3. rRNA – ribosomal RNA [4]
             - This is the RNA found in ribosomes
             - It acts as a catalyst for protein synthesis

References

  1. Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L, 2007, Biochemistry 6th edition, NY, W. H Freeman and Company, page 109
  2. Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L, 2007, Biochemistry 6th edition, NY, W. H Freeman and Company, page 119
  3. Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L, 2007, Biochemistry 6th edition, NY, W. H Freeman and Company, page 120
  4. Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L, 2007, Biochemistry 6th edition, NY, W. H Freeman and Company, page 120
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