Smooth muscle

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There are two types of smooth muscle cell, multi- unit and single unit smooth muscle. Single-unit smooth muscle cells are connected by gap junctions that electrically connect cells to one another, so contract as a single unit. These can be found in the intestinal tract, the skin, and the walls of small arteries, veins and hollow organs<ref>Tortora G.and Derrickson B., Principles Of Anatomy and Physiology (13th Edition, International Student Edition), 2011, pg 354</ref>. Multi-unit cells lack gap junctions, so are not linked electrically. They must be stimulated independently, which allows fine control of contractions by selective activation of individual muscle cells. Multi-unit cells can be found in the eye&nbsp;<ref>Silverthorn D., Johnson B., Ober W., Garrison C., Silverthorn A. (2010) Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, 5th edition, San Francisco: Pearson Education</ref>. Smooth muscle cell contracts in different direction because there is no regular arrangement of its contractile proteins and this is important in the movement of the intestine.  
 
There are two types of smooth muscle cell, multi- unit and single unit smooth muscle. Single-unit smooth muscle cells are connected by gap junctions that electrically connect cells to one another, so contract as a single unit. These can be found in the intestinal tract, the skin, and the walls of small arteries, veins and hollow organs<ref>Tortora G.and Derrickson B., Principles Of Anatomy and Physiology (13th Edition, International Student Edition), 2011, pg 354</ref>. Multi-unit cells lack gap junctions, so are not linked electrically. They must be stimulated independently, which allows fine control of contractions by selective activation of individual muscle cells. Multi-unit cells can be found in the eye&nbsp;<ref>Silverthorn D., Johnson B., Ober W., Garrison C., Silverthorn A. (2010) Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, 5th edition, San Francisco: Pearson Education</ref>. Smooth muscle cell contracts in different direction because there is no regular arrangement of its contractile proteins and this is important in the movement of the intestine.  
  
In smooth muscle contaction&nbsp; Ca2+ ions enter the muscle fibre and bind to calmodulin.<ref>Walsh.MP, ( 2008): PubMed : Calmodulin and the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Avaliable at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7816054 Accessed: 29/11/2011</ref>&nbsp; This calcium - calmodulin complex removes the caldesmon from the actin sites where myosin will attach. An enzyme called a myosin kinase is activated. Myosin kinase is responsible for phosphorylating myosin filaments so that it can form cross-bridges with actin filaments. Relaxation occurs when the myosin is dephosphorylated by myosin phosphatise removing it from actin. <ref>Bruce. A, Johnson. A., Lewis. J., Raff. M., Roberts. K., Walter. P., (2008): Molecular Biology of the Cell (5th edition) pg 1029 &amp; 1028</ref> This process is relatively slow (maximum contraction is often nearly a second long) and uses very little ATP. This means that smooth muscle doesn’t fatigue during sustained periods of activity.<ref>Biology Online(2005): Muscle Available at: http://www.biology-online.org/9/10_muscle.htm Accessed: 26/11/2011</ref>
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In smooth muscle contaction&nbsp; Ca2+ ions enter the muscle fibre and bind to [[Calmodulin|calmodulin]].<ref>Walsh.MP, ( 2008): PubMed : Calmodulin and the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Avaliable at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7816054 Accessed: 29/11/2011</ref>&nbsp; This calcium - calmodulin complex removes the caldesmon from the [[Actin|actin ]]sites where [[Myosin|myosin]] will attach. An enzyme called a myosin kinase is activated. Myosin kinase is responsible for phosphorylating myosin filaments so that it can form cross-bridges with actin filaments. Relaxation occurs when the myosin is dephosphorylated by myosin phosphatise removing it from actin. <ref>Bruce. A, Johnson. A., Lewis. J., Raff. M., Roberts. K., Walter. P., (2008): Molecular Biology of the Cell (5th edition) pg 1029 &amp;amp; 1028</ref> This process is relatively slow (maximum contraction is often nearly a second long) and uses very little ATP. This means that smooth muscle doesn’t fatigue during sustained periods of activity.<ref>Biology Online(2005): Muscle Available at: http://www.biology-online.org/9/10_muscle.htm Accessed: 26/11/2011</ref>  
  
 
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=== References  ===
  
 
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Revision as of 16:14, 2 December 2011

Smooth muscle (also known as visceral muscle due to the locations in which they are present [1]) is one of the three main types of muscle tissue that exist in the human body [2] . Smooth muscle is under involuntary control [3]  and is innervated by the autonomic nervous system [4]. Smooth muscle lines the walls of hollow internal organs such as the bladder and intestine [5], organs of this type are known as viscera. Smooth muscle cells compose myosin myofilaments dispersed throughout the muscle cell cytoplasm and filaments of actin held together in contracile bundles. Intermediate filaments exist between contractile bundles connecting them, and they are anchored by dense plaque-like bodies [6]. The contractile filament bundles of actin and myosin are loosely arranged in a diagonal fashion, in different directions around the perimeter of the smooth muscle cell. This arrangement of fibres causes the muscle cell to become globular upon contraction [7]. Smooth muscle cells are fusiforn in shape meaning that they are wide in the middle with tapered ends, they also have only a single nucleus. Smooth muscle cells do not contain the sarcomeres found in skeletal and cardiac muscle and therefore appear unstriated under a microscope [8]. Smooth muscle cells are unstriated because there is no regular arrangement of actin and myosin filaments.They contain only a few sarcoplasmic reticulua, instead using extracellular calcium as the source of calcium ions which initiate contraction [9]

There are two types of smooth muscle cell, multi- unit and single unit smooth muscle. Single-unit smooth muscle cells are connected by gap junctions that electrically connect cells to one another, so contract as a single unit. These can be found in the intestinal tract, the skin, and the walls of small arteries, veins and hollow organs[10]. Multi-unit cells lack gap junctions, so are not linked electrically. They must be stimulated independently, which allows fine control of contractions by selective activation of individual muscle cells. Multi-unit cells can be found in the eye [11]. Smooth muscle cell contracts in different direction because there is no regular arrangement of its contractile proteins and this is important in the movement of the intestine.

In smooth muscle contaction  Ca2+ ions enter the muscle fibre and bind to calmodulin.[12]  This calcium - calmodulin complex removes the caldesmon from the actin sites where myosin will attach. An enzyme called a myosin kinase is activated. Myosin kinase is responsible for phosphorylating myosin filaments so that it can form cross-bridges with actin filaments. Relaxation occurs when the myosin is dephosphorylated by myosin phosphatise removing it from actin. [13] This process is relatively slow (maximum contraction is often nearly a second long) and uses very little ATP. This means that smooth muscle doesn’t fatigue during sustained periods of activity.[14]

References

  1. Rodney R., (2002) Human Physiology, 6th Edition, Pacific Grove, California; London: Brooks/Cole
  2. Barrett K. E., Barman S. M., Botiano S., Brooks H. L. (2010) Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology, 23rd edition, New York: McGraw Hill
  3. Koeppen B. M., Stanton B. A. (2008) Berne and Levy Physiology, 6th edition, Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier
  4. The Human Body in Health and Disease 5th edition by Thibodeau, Patton (2010), page 267
  5. Silverthorn D. U., Johnson B. R., Ober W. C., Garrison C. W., Silverthorn A. C. (2010) Human Physiology, 5th edition, San Francisco: Pearson
  6. . [Becker W.M, Kleinsmith L.J, Hardin J, Bertoni G.P, 2009, The World of the Cell, 7th edition, Pearson]
  7. Silverthorn.D. U (2009) Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, 5th Edition, Cambridge, UK: Pearson
  8. Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 5th edition by F H Martini (Chapter 10, Smooth muscle tissue)
  9. Tortora G. and Derrickson B., Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (13th Edition, International Student Edition), 2011, pg 356
  10. Tortora G.and Derrickson B., Principles Of Anatomy and Physiology (13th Edition, International Student Edition), 2011, pg 354
  11. Silverthorn D., Johnson B., Ober W., Garrison C., Silverthorn A. (2010) Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, 5th edition, San Francisco: Pearson Education
  12. Walsh.MP, ( 2008): PubMed : Calmodulin and the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Avaliable at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7816054 Accessed: 29/11/2011
  13. Bruce. A, Johnson. A., Lewis. J., Raff. M., Roberts. K., Walter. P., (2008): Molecular Biology of the Cell (5th edition) pg 1029 &amp; 1028
  14. Biology Online(2005): Muscle Available at: http://www.biology-online.org/9/10_muscle.htm Accessed: 26/11/2011
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