https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php?title=Special:Contributions/090012763&feed=atom&deletedOnly=&limit=50&target=090012763&topOnly=&year=&month=The School of Biomedical Sciences Wiki - User contributions [en]2020-08-14T23:09:23ZFrom The School of Biomedical Sciences WikiMediaWiki 1.17.0https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-17T18:32:39Z<p>090012763: </p>
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<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
== Composition<br> ==<br />
<br />
=== Plasma ===<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid.<br> <br />
<br />
=== Thrombocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]].<br> <br />
<br />
=== Erythrocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
=== Leukocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]].<br> <br />
<br />
== Blood Pressure<br> ==<br />
<br />
''Main article:'' [[Blood Pressure]] <br />
<br />
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood vessels exerted by circulating blood. It is normally measured at upper arm using a sphygmomanometer. During a heartbeat, there are two types of blood pressure is measured. One is 'upper' systolic pressure (contraction) and another is 'lower' diastolic (relaxation) pressure. Normal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic).<br> <br />
<br />
== Blood Group Systems ==<br />
<br />
''Main article:'' [[Blood group systems]] <br />
<br />
There are 30 blood groups systems recognised by International Society of Blood Transfusion. The major blood group systems are ABO Blood Group System and Rh Blood Group System. <br />
<br />
== See also ==<br />
<br />
#[[Haemoglobin]]<br />
#[[Hypertension]]<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
#[http://www.isbtweb.org/home/ ISBT]. International Society of Blood Transfusion. <br />
#[http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm Table of blood group systems.]<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Blood_group_systemsBlood group systems2010-11-15T18:15:53Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Blood group''' (or '''blood type''') is a term used to clasify blood based on the presence or absence of a specific antigen on red blood cells surface. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are about 30 human blood group systems recognized so far<ref>Table of blood group systems, ISBT (August 2008). Retrieved on 15 November 2010.</ref>.<br> <br />
<br />
== ABO blood group system<br> ==<br />
<br />
The most common blood group system being used nowadays is ABO blood group system. In this system, there are 4 classification of blood types. They are group A, B, AB and O. These groups are classified according to the presence or absence of ABO antigen. <br> <br />
<br />
'''<br>''' <br />
<br />
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1" align="center" style="width: 451px; height: 140px;"<br />
|-<br />
| '''Blood group''' <br />
| '''Antigen(s) present on erythrocytes''' <br />
| '''Antibodies present in plasma''' <br />
| '''Genotype(s)'''<br />
|-<br />
| A <br />
| A antigen <br />
| Anti-B <br />
| AA or AO<br />
|-<br />
| B <br />
| B antigen <br />
| Anti-A <br />
| BB or BO<br />
|-<br />
| AB <br />
| A and B antigens <br />
| none <br />
| AB<br />
|-<br />
| O <br />
| none <br />
| Anti-A and B <br />
| OO<br />
|}<br />
<br />
== Rh blood group system<br> ==<br />
<br />
Rh blood group system is the second most important system in determining blood groups. It is based on the presence or absence of D antigen on the red blood cells surface. <br />
<br />
== See also<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[[Blood]]<br />
<br />
== References<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
== External links<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm Table of blood group systems]<br> <br />
*[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=rbcantigen&part=ch05ABO The ABO blood group]<br />
<br />
<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Blood_group_systemsBlood group systems2010-11-15T18:08:07Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Blood group''' (or '''blood type''') is a term used to clasify blood based on the presence or absence of a specific antigen on red blood cells surface. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are about 30 human blood group systems recognized so far<ref>Table of blood group systems, ISBT (August 2008). Retrieved on 15 November 2010.</ref>.<br> <br />
<br />
== ABO blood group system<br> ==<br />
<br />
The most common blood group system being used nowadays is ABO blood group system. In this system, there are 4 classification of blood types. They are group A, B, AB and O. These groups are classified according to the presence or absence of ABO antigen. <br> <br />
<br />
'''<br>''' <br />
<br />
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1" align="center" style="width: 451px; height: 140px;"<br />
|-<br />
| '''Blood group''' <br />
| '''Antigen(s) present on erythrocytes''' <br />
| '''Antibodies present in plasma''' <br />
| '''Genotype(s)'''<br />
|-<br />
| A <br />
| A antigen <br />
| Anti-B <br />
| AA or AO<br />
|-<br />
| B <br />
| B antigen <br />
| Anti-A <br />
| BB or BO<br />
|-<br />
| AB <br />
| A and B antigens <br />
| none <br />
| AB<br />
|-<br />
| O <br />
| none <br />
| Anti-A and B <br />
| OO<br />
|}<br />
<br />
== Rh blood group system<br> ==<br />
<br />
Rh blood group system is the second most important system in determining blood groups. It is based on the presence or absence of D antigen on the red blood cells surface. <br />
<br />
== See also<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[[Blood]]<br />
<br />
== References<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
== External links<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm Table of blood group systems]<br><br />
<br />
<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Blood_group_systemsBlood group systems2010-11-15T18:06:49Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Blood group''' (or '''blood type''') is a term used to clasify blood based on the presence or absence of a specific antigen on red blood cells surface. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are about 30 human blood group systems recognized so far<ref>http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm, Table of blood group systems, ISBT (August 2008). Retrieved on 15 November 2010.</ref>.<br><br />
<br />
== ABO blood group system<br> ==<br />
<br />
The most common blood group system being used nowadays is ABO blood group system. In this system, there are 4 classification of blood types. They are group A, B, AB and O. These groups are classified according to the presence or absence of ABO antigen. <br> <br />
<br />
'''<br>'''<br />
<br />
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1" align="center" style="width: 451px; height: 140px;"<br />
|-<br />
| '''Blood group'''<br />
| '''Antigen(s) present on erythrocytes'''<br />
| '''Antibodies present in plasma'''<br />
| '''Genotype(s)'''<br />
|-<br />
| A<br />
| A antigen<br />
| Anti-B<br />
| AA or AO<br />
|-<br />
| B<br />
| B antigen<br />
| Anti-A<br />
| BB or BO<br />
|-<br />
| AB<br />
| A and B antigens<br />
| none<br />
| AB<br />
|-<br />
| O<br />
| none<br />
| Anti-A and B<br />
| OO<br />
|}<br />
<br />
== Rh blood group system<br> ==<br />
<br />
Rh blood group system is the second most important system in determining blood groups. It is based on the presence or absence of D antigen on the red blood cells surface.<br />
<br />
== See also<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[[Blood]]<br />
<br />
== References<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
== External links<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm Table of blood group systems]<br><br />
<br />
<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Blood_group_systemsBlood group systems2010-11-15T17:57:34Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Blood group''' (or '''blood type''') is a term used to clasify blood based on the presence or absence of a specific antigen on red blood cells surface. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are about 30 human blood group systems recognized so far<ref>http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm, Table of blood group systems, ISBT (August 2008). Retrieved on 15 November 2010.</ref>.<br><br />
<br />
== ABO blood group system<br> ==<br />
<br />
The most common blood group system being used nowadays is ABO blood group system. In this system, there are 4 classification of blood types. They are group A, B, AB and O. These groups are classified according to the presence or absence of ABO antigen. <br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1" style="width: 295px; height: 61px;"<br />
|-<br />
| '''Phenotype'''<br> <br />
| A<br> <br />
| B<br> <br />
| AB<br> <br />
| O<br><br />
|-<br />
| '''Genotype'''<br> <br />
| AA or AO<br> <br />
| BB or BO<br> <br />
| AB<br> <br />
| OO<br><br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br><br />
<br />
== Rh blood group system<br> ==<br />
<br />
Rh blood group system is the second most important system in determining blood groups. It is based on the presence or absence of D antigen on the red blood cells surface.<br />
<br />
== See also<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[[Blood]]<br />
<br />
== References<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
== External links<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm Table of blood group systems]<br><br />
<br />
<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Blood_group_systemsBlood group systems2010-11-15T17:57:09Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Blood group''' (or '''blood type''') is a term used to clasify blood based on the presence or absence of a specific antigen on red blood cells surface. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are about 30 human blood group systems recognized so far<ref>http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm, Table of blood group systems, ISBT (August 2008). Retrieved on 15 November 2010.</ref>.<br><br />
<br />
== ABO blood group system<br> ==<br />
<br />
The most common blood group system being used nowadays is ABO blood group system. In this system, there are 4 classification of blood types. They are group A, B, AB and O. These groups are classified according to the presence or absence of ABO antigen. <br> <br />
<br />
<br><br />
<br />
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1" style="width: 295px; height: 61px;"<br />
|-<br />
| [['''Phenotype''']]<br><br />
| A<br><br />
| B<br><br />
| AB<br><br />
| O<br><br />
|-<br />
| [['''Genotype''']]<br><br />
| AA or AO<br><br />
| BB or BO<br><br />
| AB<br><br />
| OO<br><br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br><br />
<br />
== Rh blood group system<br> ==<br />
<br />
Rh blood group system is the second most important system in determining blood groups. It is based on the presence or absence of D antigen on the red blood cells surface.<br />
<br />
== See also<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[[Blood]]<br />
<br />
== References<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
== External links<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm Table of blood group systems]<br><br />
<br />
<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Blood_group_systemsBlood group systems2010-11-15T17:47:43Z<p>090012763: Created page with ''''Blood group''' (or '''blood type''') is a term used to clasify blood based on the presence or absence of a specific antigen on red blood cells surface. According to the Intern…'</p>
<hr />
<div>'''Blood group''' (or '''blood type''') is a term used to clasify blood based on the presence or absence of a specific antigen on red blood cells surface. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are about 30 human blood group systems recognized so far<ref>http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm, Table of blood group systems, ISBT (August 2008). Retrieved on 15 November 2010.</ref>.<br><br />
<br />
== ABO blood group system<br> ==<br />
<br />
The most common blood group system being used nowadays is ABO blood group system. In this system, there are 4 classification of blood types. They are group A, B, AB and O. These groups are classified according to the presence or absence of ABO antigen. <br><br />
<br />
== Rh blood group system<br> ==<br />
<br />
Rh blood group system is the second most important system in determining blood groups. It is based on the presence or absence of D antigen on the red blood cells surface.<br />
<br />
== See also<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[[Blood]]<br />
<br />
== References<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
== External links<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm Table of blood group systems]<br><br />
<br />
<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Goldman_equationGoldman equation2010-11-15T15:32:01Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Goldman equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical equilibium potential across the cell's membrane in the presence of more than one ions taking into account the selectivity of membrane's permeability. It is derived from the Nernst equation. <br> <br />
<br />
== Equation<br> ==<br />
<br />
The Goldman equation can be expressed as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Goldman eqn1.png|412x105px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Goldman eqn2.png|520x124px]]<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol-1 <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in Kelvin; 0 K = -273.15oC <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol-1 <br />
<br />
P<sub>A or B </sub>is the permeability of the membrane to a particular ion (A or B) <br />
<br />
[A or B]<sub>o</sub> is the concentration of ion outside the membrane <br> <br />
<br />
[A or B]<sub>i</sub> is the concentration of ion inside the membrane<br> <br />
<br />
== See also<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[[Nernst equation]]<br><br />
<br />
== References<br> ==<br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
*[http://www.nernstgoldman.physiology.arizona.edu/ The Nernst/Goldman Equation Simulator]<br />
<br />
<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Goldman_equationGoldman equation2010-11-15T15:30:29Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Goldman equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical equilibium potential across the cell's membrane in the presence of more than one ions taking into account the selectivity of membrane's permeability. It is derived from the Nernst equation. <br><br />
<br />
== Equation<br> ==<br />
<br />
The Goldman equation can be expressed as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Goldman eqn1.png|412x105px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Goldman eqn2.png|520x124px]]<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol-1 <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in Kelvin; 0 K = -273.15oC <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol-1 <br />
<br />
P<sub>A or B </sub>is the permeability of the membrane to a particular ion (A or B) <br />
<br />
[A or B]<sub>o</sub> is the concentration of ion outside the membrane <br> <br />
<br />
[A or B]<sub>i</sub> is the concentration of ion inside the membrane<br><br />
<br />
== See also<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[[Nernst equation]]<br><br />
<br />
== References<br> ==<br />
<br />
<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-15T15:29:06Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<ref>http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1920/nernst-bio.html, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920; Walther Nernst</ref><br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
''Main article: ''[[Membrane Potential|Membrane potential]] <br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>]<sub>o</sub> is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>]<sub>i</sub> is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Ussing study of frog skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber.<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<ref>Diagram based on CMB2003: Cell and Membrane Transport lecture note (2010).</ref>Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.<br> <br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]] <br />
<br />
=== Goldman equation ===<br />
<br />
''Main article:'' [[Goldman equation]] <br />
<br />
In presence of more than one ion, the Nernst equation can be modified into Hodgkin-Katz-Goldman equation or is commonly known as Goldman equation. Goldman equation is proposed by David E. Goldman of Columbia University together with Alan L. Hodgkin and Bernard Katz. <br />
<br />
== See also ==<br />
<br />
*[[Membrane potential]]<br> <br />
*[[Goldman equation]]<br><br />
<br />
== References &amp; Notes<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /><br> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
*[http://www.nernstgoldman.physiology.arizona.edu/ The Nernst/Goldman Equation Simulator]</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Goldman_equationGoldman equation2010-11-15T15:27:50Z<p>090012763: Created page with ''''Goldman equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical equilibium potential across the cell's membrane in the presence of more than one ions taking into account t…'</p>
<hr />
<div>'''Goldman equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical equilibium potential across the cell's membrane in the presence of more than one ions taking into account the selectivity of membrane's permeability. It is derived from the Nernst equation. <br><br />
<br />
== Equation<br> ==<br />
<br />
The Goldman equation can be expressed as follows:<br><br />
<br />
<br><br />
<br />
[[Image:Goldman_eqn1.png]]<br><br />
<br />
or<br><br />
<br />
[[Image:Goldman_eqn2.png]]<br><br />
<br />
<br><br />
<br />
where<br><br />
<br />
<br><br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol-1<br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in Kelvin; 0 K = -273.15oC<br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion)<br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol-1<br />
<br />
P<sub>A or B </sub>is the permeability of the membrane to a particular ion (A or B)<br />
<br />
[A or B]<sub>o</sub> is the concentration of ion outside the membrane <br><br />
<br />
[A or B]<sub>i</sub> is the concentration of ion inside the membrane<br><br />
<br />
== See also<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[[Nernst equation]]<br><br />
<br />
== References<br> ==<br />
<br />
<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/File:Goldman_eqn2.pngFile:Goldman eqn2.png2010-11-15T15:24:12Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/File:Goldman_eqn1.pngFile:Goldman eqn1.png2010-11-15T15:23:58Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-15T15:07:14Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<ref>http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1920/nernst-bio.html, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920; Walther Nernst</ref><br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
''Main article: ''[[Membrane Potential|Membrane potential]] <br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion) <br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Ussing study of frog skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber.<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<ref>Diagram based on CMB2003: Cell and Membrane Transport lecture note (2010).</ref>Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.<br> <br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]] <br />
<br />
=== Goldman equation ===<br />
<br />
''Main article:'' [[Goldman equation]] <br />
<br />
In presence of more than one ion, the Nernst equation can be modified into Hodgkin-Katz-Goldman equation or is commonly known as Goldman equation. Goldman equation is proposed by David E. Goldman of Columbia University together with Alan L. Hodgkin and Bernard Katz. <br />
<br />
== See also ==<br />
<br />
*[[Membrane potential]]<br> <br />
*[[Goldman equation]]<br><br />
<br />
== References &amp; Notes<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /><br> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
*[http://www.nernstgoldman.physiology.arizona.edu/ The Nernst/Goldman Equation Simulator]</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-15T15:06:11Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<ref>http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1920/nernst-bio.html, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920; Walther Nernst</ref><br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
''Main article: ''[[Membrane Potential|Membrane potential]] <br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion) <br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Ussing study of frog skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber.<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<ref>Diagram based on CMB2003: Cell and Membrane Transport lecture note (2010).</ref>Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.<br> <br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
=== Goldman equation ===<br />
<br />
''Main article:'' [[Goldman equation]] <br />
<br />
In presence of more than one ion, the Nernst equation can be modified into Hodgkin-Katz-Goldman equation or is commonly known as Goldman equation. Goldman equation is proposed by David E. Goldman of Columbia University together with Alan L. Hodgkin and Bernard Katz. <br />
<br />
== See also ==<br />
<br />
*[[Membrane potential]]<br><br />
*[[Goldman equation]]<br><br />
<br />
<br><br />
<br />
<br><br />
<br />
== References &amp; Notes<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
*[http://www.nernstgoldman.physiology.arizona.edu/ The Nernst/Goldman Equation Simulator]</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-15T15:04:31Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<ref>http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1920/nernst-bio.html, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920; Walther Nernst</ref><br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
''Main article: ''[[Membrane Potential|Membrane potential]] <br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion) <br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Ussing study of frog skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber.<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<ref>Diagram based on CMB2003: Cell and Membrane Transport lecture note (2010).</ref>Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.<br> <br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
=== Goldman equation ===<br />
<br />
''Main article:'' [[Goldman equation]] <br />
<br />
In presence of more than one ion, the Nernst equation can be modified into Hodgkin-Katz-Goldman equation or is commonly known as Goldman equation. Goldman equation is proposed by David E. Goldman of Columbia University together with Alan L. Hodgkin and Bernard Katz. <br />
<br />
== See also ==<br />
<br />
== References &amp; Notes<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
*[http://www.nernstgoldman.physiology.arizona.edu/ The Nernst/Goldman Equation Simulator]</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-15T15:03:35Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<ref>http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1920/nernst-bio.html, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920; Walther Nernst</ref><br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
''Main article: ''[[Membrane Potential]]<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Ussing Study of Frog Skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber.<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<ref>Diagram based on CMB2003: Cell and Membrane Transport lecture note (2010).</ref>Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.<br> <br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]] <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
=== Goldman Equation ===<br />
<br />
''Main article:'' [[Goldman equation]]<br />
<br />
In presence of more than one ion, the Nernst equation can be modified into Hodgkin-Katz-Goldman equation or is commonly known as Goldman equation. Goldman equation is proposed by David E. Goldman of Columbia University together with Alan L. Hodgkin and Bernard Katz.<br />
<br />
== See also ==<br />
<br />
== References &amp; Notes<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
*[http://www.nernstgoldman.physiology.arizona.edu/ The Nernst/Goldman Equation Simulator]</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-15T14:54:51Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<ref>http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1920/nernst-bio.html, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920; Walther Nernst</ref><br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
''Main article: ''[[Membrane Potential]]<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Ussing Study of Frog Skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber.<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<ref>Diagram based on CMB2003: Cell and Membrane Transport lecture note (2010).</ref>Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.<br> <br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]] <br />
<br />
== See also ==<br />
<br />
== References &amp; Notes<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
*[http://www.nernstgoldman.physiology.arizona.edu/ The Nernst/Goldman Equation Simulator]</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-15T14:53:58Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<ref>http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1920/nernst-bio.html, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920; Walther Nernst</ref><br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion) <br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Ussing Study of Frog Skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber.<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<ref>Diagram based on CMB2003: Cell and Membrane Transport lecture note (2010).</ref>Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.<br> <br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]] <br />
<br />
== See also ==<br />
<br />
== References &amp; Notes<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
*[http://www.nernstgoldman.physiology.arizona.edu/ The Nernst/Goldman Equation Simulator]</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-15T14:52:21Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
== Composition<br> ==<br />
<br />
=== Plasma ===<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid.<br> <br />
<br />
=== Thrombocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]].<br> <br />
<br />
=== Erythrocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
=== Leukocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]].<br><br />
<br />
== Blood Pressure<br> ==<br />
<br />
''Main article:'' [[Blood Pressure]]<br />
<br />
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood vessels exerted by circulating blood. It is normally measured at upper arm using a sphygmomanometer. During a heartbeat, there are two types of blood pressure is measured. One is 'upper' systolic pressure (contraction) and another is 'lower' diastolic (relaxation) pressure. Normal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic).<br><br />
<br />
== Blood Group Systems ==<br />
<br />
''Main article:'' [[Blood group systems]]<br />
<br />
There are 30 blood groups systems recognised by International Society of Blood Transfusion. The major blood group systems are ABO Blood Group System and Rh Blood Group System.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
#[http://www.isbtweb.org/home/ ISBT]. International Society of Blood Transfusion. <br />
#[http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm Table of blood group systems.]<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-15T14:51:01Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
== Composition<br> ==<br />
<br />
=== Plasma ===<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid.<br> <br />
<br />
=== Thrombocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]].<br> <br />
<br />
=== Erythrocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
=== Leukocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]].<br><br />
<br />
== Blood Pressure<br> ==<br />
<br />
''Main article:'' [[Blood Pressure]]<br />
<br />
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood vessels exerted by circulating blood. It is normally measured at upper arm using a sphygmomanometer. During a heartbeat, there are two types of blood pressure is measured. One is 'upper' systolic pressure (contraction) and another is 'lower' diastolic (relaxation) pressure. Normal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic).<br><br />
<br />
== Blood Group Systems ==<br />
<br />
There are 30 blood groups systems recognised by International Society of Blood Transfusion. The major blood group systems are ABO Blood Group System and Rh Blood Group System.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
#[http://www.isbtweb.org/home/ ISBT]. International Society of Blood Transfusion. <br />
#[http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm Table of blood group systems.]<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-15T14:49:54Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
== Composition<br> ==<br />
<br />
=== Plasma ===<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid.<br> <br />
<br />
=== Thrombocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]].<br> <br />
<br />
=== Erythrocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
=== Leukocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]].<br><br />
<br />
== Blood Pressure<br> ==<br />
<br />
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood vessels exerted by circulating blood. It is normally measured at upper arm using a sphygmomanometer. During a heartbeat, there are two types of blood pressure is measured. One is 'upper' systolic pressure (contraction) and another is 'lower' diastolic (relaxation) pressure. Normal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic).<br> <br />
<br />
== Blood Group Systems ==<br />
<br />
There are 30 blood groups systems recognised by International Society of Blood Transfusion. The major blood group systems are ABO Blood Group System and Rh Blood Group System.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
#[http://www.isbtweb.org/home/ ISBT]. International Society of Blood Transfusion. <br />
#[http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm Table of blood group systems.]<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-15T14:48:59Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
== Composition<br> ==<br />
<br />
=== Plasma ===<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid.<br> <br />
<br />
=== Thrombocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]].<br> <br />
<br />
=== Erythrocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
=== Leukocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]].<br><br />
<br />
== Blood Pressure<br> ==<br />
<br />
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood vessels exerted by circulating blood. It is normally measured at upper arm using a sphygmomanometer. During a heartbeat, there are two types of blood pressure is measured. One is 'upper' systolic pressure (contraction) and another is 'lower' diastolic (relaxation) pressure. Normal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic).<br> <br />
<br />
== Blood Group Systems ==<br />
<br />
There are 30 blood groups systems recognised by International Society of Blood Transfusion. The major blood group systems are ABO Blood Group System and Rh Blood Group System.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
#[http://www.isbtweb.org/home/ ISBT]. International Society of Blood Transfusion. <br />
#[http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm Table of blood group systems][http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm ].<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-15T14:47:47Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
== Composition<br> ==<br />
<br />
=== Plasma ===<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid.<br> <br />
<br />
=== Thrombocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]].<br> <br />
<br />
=== Erythrocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
=== Leukocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]].<br><br />
<br />
== Blood Pressure<br> ==<br />
<br />
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood vessels exerted by circulating blood. It is normally measured at upper arm using a sphygmomanometer. During a heartbeat, there are two types of blood pressure is measured. One is 'upper' systolic pressure (contraction) and another is 'lower' diastolic (relaxation) pressure. Normal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic).<br> <br />
<br />
== Blood Group Systems ==<br />
<br />
There are 30 blood groups systems recognised by International Society of Blood Transfusion. The major blood group systems are ABO Blood Group System and Rh Blood Group System.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
#[http://www.isbtweb.org/home/ ISBT]. International Society of Blood Transfusion. <br />
#Table of blood group systems.[http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm]<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-15T14:46:40Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
== Composition<br> ==<br />
<br />
=== Plasma ===<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid.<br> <br />
<br />
=== Thrombocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]].<br> <br />
<br />
=== Erythrocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
=== Leukocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]].<br><br />
<br />
== Blood Pressure<br> ==<br />
<br />
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood vessels exerted by circulating blood. It is normally measured at upper arm using a sphygmomanometer. During a heartbeat, there are two types of blood pressure is measured. One is 'upper' systolic pressure (contraction) and another is 'lower' diastolic (relaxation) pressure. Normal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic).<br> <br />
<br />
== Blood Group Systems ==<br />
<br />
There are 30 blood groups systems recognised by International Society of Blood Transfusion. The major blood group systems are ABO Blood Group System and Rh Blood Group System.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
#[http://www.isbtweb.org/home/ ISBT]. International Society of Blood Transfusion.</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-15T14:44:09Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
== Composition<br> ==<br />
<br />
=== Plasma ===<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid.<br> <br />
<br />
=== Thrombocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]].<br> <br />
<br />
=== Erythrocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
=== Leukocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]].<br><br />
<br />
== Blood Pressure<br> ==<br />
<br />
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood vessels exerted by circulating blood. It is normally measured at upper arm using a sphygmomanometer. During a heartbeat, there are two types of blood pressure is measured. One is 'upper' systolic pressure (contraction) and another is 'lower' diastolic (relaxation) pressure. Normal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic).<br> <br />
<br />
== Blood Group Systems ==<br />
<br />
There are 30 blood groups systems recognised by International Society of Blood Transfusion[http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm <ref>Table of blood group systems</ref>]. The major blood group systems are ABO Blood Group System and Rh Blood Group System.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
#[http://www.isbtweb.org/home/ ISBT]. International Society of Blood Transfusion.</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-15T14:42:17Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
== Composition<br> ==<br />
<br />
=== Plasma ===<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid.<br> <br />
<br />
=== Thrombocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]].<br> <br />
<br />
=== Erythrocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
=== Leukocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]].<br><br />
<br />
== Blood Pressure<br> ==<br />
<br />
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood vessels exerted by circulating blood. It is normally measured at upper arm using a sphygmomanometer. During a heartbeat, there are two types of blood pressure is measured. One is 'upper' systolic pressure (contraction) and another is 'lower' diastolic (relaxation) pressure. Normal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic).<br> <br />
<br />
== Blood Group Systems ==<br />
<br />
There are 30 blood groups systems recognised by International Society of Blood Transfusion<ref name="http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm">Table of blood group systems</ref>. The major blood group systems are ABO Blood Group System and Rh Blood Group System.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
#[http://www.isbtweb.org/home/ ISBT]. International Society of Blood Transfusion.</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-15T14:41:18Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
== Composition<br> ==<br />
<br />
=== Plasma ===<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid.<br> <br />
<br />
=== Thrombocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]].<br> <br />
<br />
=== Erythrocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
=== Leukocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]].<br><br />
<br />
== Blood Pressure<br> ==<br />
<br />
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood vessels exerted by circulating blood. It is normally measured at upper arm using a sphygmomanometer. During a heartbeat, there are two types of blood pressure is measured. One is 'upper' systolic pressure (contraction) and another is 'lower' diastolic (relaxation) pressure. Normal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic).<br> <br />
<br />
== Blood Group Systems ==<br />
<br />
There are 30 blood groups systems recognised by International Society of Blood Transfusion<ref name="Table of blood group systems.">http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm</ref>. The major blood group systems are ABO Blood Group System and Rh Blood Group System.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
#[http://www.isbtweb.org/home/ ISBT]. International Society of Blood Transfusion.</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-15T14:38:34Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
== Composition<br> ==<br />
<br />
=== Plasma ===<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid.<br> <br />
<br />
=== Thrombocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]].<br> <br />
<br />
=== Erythrocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
=== Leukocytes ===<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]].<br><br />
<br />
== Blood Pressure<br> ==<br />
<br />
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood vessels exerted by circulating blood. It is normally measured at upper arm using a sphygmomanometer. During a heartbeat, there are two types of blood pressure is measured. One is 'upper' systolic pressure (contraction) and another is 'lower' diastolic (relaxation) pressure. Normal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic).<br> <br />
<br />
== Blood Group Systems ==<br />
<br />
There are 30 blood groups systems recognised by International Society of Blood Transfusion<ref>Table of blood group systems.</ref>. The major blood group systems are ABO Blood Group System and Rh Blood Group System.<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
#[http://www.isbtweb.org/home/ ISBT]. International Society of Blood Transfusion.</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/ProteinProtein2010-11-15T14:19:18Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>A protein is a biological molecule which is made up of [[Amino acid|amino acids]].&nbsp; The [[Amino acids|amino acids]] join together with peptide bond to form a polypeptide chain. A protein can be made up of a single polypeptide chain or multiple [[Polypeptides|polypeptides]] linked together.&nbsp;Examples of proteins include [[Enzyme|enzymes]], [[Receptor|receptors]] and [[Hormone|hormones.]]&nbsp; They are found in every form of life from viruses to bacteria, yeasts to humans.&nbsp; <br />
<br />
== Structure<br> ==<br />
<br />
A protein has several 'layers' of structure.&nbsp; <br />
<br />
=== Primary Structure ===<br />
<br />
The [[Primary structure|primary structure]] is the sequence of [[Amino acids|amino acids]].&nbsp; This is determined&nbsp;by the [[DNA|DNA]] sequence&nbsp;that encodes for&nbsp;that particular protein, called the [[Gene|gene]].&nbsp; <br><br />
<br />
=== Secondary Structure<br> ===<br />
<br />
[[Secondary structure|Secondary structure]] is the first level of protein folding.&nbsp;A protein can fold in two different ways or not at all.&nbsp; It can either fold as an [[Alpha-helix|alpha-helix or]] a [[Beta-sheet|beta-sheet]]&nbsp;depending on the sequence of [[Amino acids|amino acids]].&nbsp; <br><br />
<br />
=== Tertiary Structure<br> ===<br />
<br />
[[Tertiary structure|Tertiary structure]] relates to the protein function.&nbsp; If the [[Tertiary structure|tertiary structure]] is wrong then the protein is unlikely to function properly.&nbsp; [[Tertiary structure|Tertiary structure]] is held together by either [[Hydrogen bonds|hydrogen bonds]] or [[Disulphide bridges|disulphide bridges]] depending o the [[Amino acids|amio acids]] present.&nbsp; Finally, if there are more than one peptide chains linked together to form a protein then you get a [[Quarternary structure|quarternary structure]].<br><br />
<br />
=== Quarternary Structure<br> ===<br />
<br />
One or more tertiary stucture of protein build up a quarternary structure.<br><br />
<br />
== See also<br> ==<br />
<br />
*[http://bms.ncl.ac.uk/wiki/index.php/Amino_acids Amino acid]<br><br />
<br />
== References<br> ==<br />
<br />
<br></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Renin-Angiotensin_SystemRenin-Angiotensin System2010-11-15T13:56:14Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>The Renin-Angiotensin system (RAS), also Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system, is one of the mechanisms used by the body to regulate [[blood pressure|blood pressure]]. It comes into play when the [[blood pressure|blood pressure]] is too low, in disease it can&nbsp;happen when the [[blood pressure|blood pressure]] is not low&nbsp;which can lead to [[hypertension|hypertension]].&nbsp; <br />
<br />
== <u></u>Mechanism<u></u> ==<br />
<br />
Low [[Blood pressure|blood pressure]] is detected by the juxtaglomerular apparatus&nbsp;which&nbsp;secretes&nbsp;renin. This&nbsp;[[Enzyme|enzyme]] hydrolyses&nbsp;angiotensinogen&nbsp;in the blood stream to [[Angiotensin I|angiotensin I]]. Angiotensin&nbsp;I is further processed; [[Angiotensin-converting-enzyme|angiotensin-converting-enzyme]] (ACE), released from the lungs, cleaves further [[Amino acids|amino acids]]&nbsp;from the protein resulting in [[Angiotensin II|angiotensin II]]. This [[Protein|protein]] help the body to raise the [[Blood pressure|blood pressure]] by many mechanisms including [[Vasoconstriction|vasoconstriction]], [[ADH|ADH]] secretion and [[Aldosterone|aldosterone]] secretion.</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-15T13:54:49Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Plasma ==<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Thrombocytes ==<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]]. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Erythrocytes ==<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Leukocytes ==<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-15T13:54:35Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Plasma ==<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Thrombocytes ==<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]]. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Erythrocytes ==<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Leukocytes ==<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== Reference ==<br />
<br />
<references /></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/BloodBlood2010-11-15T13:54:02Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>Blood is a major part of the human body. It is required for most functions of cells. Blood is comprised of 3 main sections: [[Plasma|Plasma]], [[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]], red blood cell ([[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]]), White Blood Cells&nbsp;([[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]]). <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Plasma ==<br />
<br />
[[Plasma|Plasma]] contains many molecules ranging from clotting factors, dissolved [[Proteins|proteins]] and even [[Carbon dioxide|carbon dioxide]] through respiration.&nbsp;Plasma is extremely important in the transport of metabolites&nbsp;such as ATP an&nbsp;glucose&nbsp;around the body.&nbsp;It also&nbsp;can contain waste&nbsp;molecules such&nbsp;as urea and lactic acid. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Thrombocytes ==<br />
<br />
[[Thrombocytes|Thrombocytes]] are used in the clotting process and used to clog a broken seal with the aid of clotting factors via the [[Intrinsic Pathway|Intrinsic pathway]]. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Erythrocytes ==<br />
<br />
[[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are used in gas exchange using the [[Proteins|protein]] [[Haemoglobin|Haemoglobin]] (Hb). The most distinct characteristic of the Erythrocytes is their unique biconcave shape. To be more specific, [[Erythrocytes|erythrocytes]] are flat and disc-shaped with indentations in the middle of both sides. This contribute to the ease of carrying and transporting [[Molecule|oxygen]] across the whole blood stream. [[Erythrocytes|Erythrocytes]] are also able to demonstrate their membrane flexibility by&nbsp; being able to squeeze through the very tiny and narrow blood capillaries<ref>Sherwood (2010) Human Physiology (From Cells to Systems), 7th edition, Canada : BROOKS/COLE CENGAGE Learning. page 392-4</ref>. <br> <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Leukocytes ==<br />
<br />
[[Leukocytes|Leukocytes]] are used to defend the body against [[Pathogens|pathogens]] via [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] or [[Antibody|antibody]] production.&nbsp;There are many leukocytes differing in their mechanisms and appearance&nbsp;(granular/agranular): l[[Lymphocyte|ymphocytes]], [[Monocyte|monocytes]], [[Basophil|basophils]] and&nbsp;[[Eosinophil|eosinophils]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
=== References: ===<br />
<br />
<references /></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-15T13:09:50Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<ref>http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1920/nernst-bio.html, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920; Walther Nernst</ref><br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion) <br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Ussing Study of Frog Skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber.<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<ref>Diagram based on CMB2003: Cell and Membrane Transport lecture note (2010).</ref>Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.<br> <br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]] <br />
<br />
== See also ==<br />
<br />
== References &amp; Notes<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== External Links ==<br />
<br />
#[http://www.nernstgoldman.physiology.arizona.edu/ The Nernst/Goldman Equation Simulator]</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-14T23:27:59Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<ref>http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1920/nernst-bio.html, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920; Walther Nernst</ref><br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion) <br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Ussing Study of Frog Skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber. <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<ref>Diagram based on CMB2003: Cell and Membrane Transport lecture note (2010).</ref>Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as: <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]] <br />
<br />
== See also ==<br />
<br />
== References &amp; Notes<br> ==<br />
<br />
<references /></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-14T23:21:33Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Ussing Study of Frog Skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber. <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<ref>Diagram based on CMB2003: Cell and Membrane Transport lecture note (2010).</ref>Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as: <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]]<br />
<br />
== See also ==<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-14T23:19:48Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br><br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Ussing Study of Frog Skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber. <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<ref>Diagram based on CMB2003: Cell and Membrane Transport lecture note (2010).</ref>Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as: <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]]<br />
<br />
== See also ==<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-14T23:16:42Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br><br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Using Study of Frog Skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber. <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<ref>Diagram based on CMB2003: Cell and Membrane Transport lecture note (2010).</ref>Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as: <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]] <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== See also ==<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== References ==<br />
<br />
<references /></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-14T23:13:36Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br><br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Using Study of Frog Skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber. <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<ref>Diagram based on CMB2003: Cell and Membrane Transport lecture note (2010).</ref>Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as: <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]]</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-14T23:10:06Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br><br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Using Study of Frog Skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber. <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing model.png|629x322px|Ussing model of transepithelial ions absorption.]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as: <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation4.png]]</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-14T23:05:58Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br><br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane (in this case is anion, negative charge ion)<br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Using Study of Frog Skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing_model.png|629x322px]]<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as:<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst_equation4.png]]</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-14T23:02:14Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating [[Ion|ions]]. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the [[Universal gas constant|universal gas constant]]; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''[[Kelvin|Kelvin]]''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of [[Moles|moles]] of [[Electrons|electrons]] transferred between cells (defined by the valency of [[Ion|ions]])<br> <br />
<br />
F is the [[Faraday's constant|Faraday's constant]]; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that gained [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Reduction|reduction]])<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of [[Ion|ion]] that lost [[Electrons|electrons]] ([[Oxidation|oxidation]])<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an [[Ion|ion]] across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]]<br> <br />
<br />
or<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]]<br> <br />
<br />
where<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub> <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion) <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane <br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane <br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Using Study of Frog Skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Image:Ussing_model.png|629x322px]]<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
For example at the standard condition and temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C (298K), the above sodium ion membrane potential can be calculated as:<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst_equation4.png]]</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/File:Nernst_equation4.pngFile:Nernst equation4.png2010-11-14T23:01:45Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/File:Ussing_model.pngFile:Ussing model.png2010-11-14T22:42:23Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-14T21:48:30Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating ions. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
where <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between cells (defined by the valency of ions)<br> <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of ion that gained electrons (reduction)<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of ion that lost electrons (oxidation)<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an ion across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
or <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
where <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub><br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup><br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion)<br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane<br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Ussing Study of Frog Skin ===<br />
<br />
In biochemistry, Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential difference of ion between membranes. Hans H. Ussing, a Danish scientist, used a frog skin to measure the potential difference of sodium and potassium ions across the membranes with his famous invention, the Ussing chamber.</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-14T21:43:51Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating ions. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
where <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between cells (defined by the valency of ions)<br> <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of ion that gained electrons (reduction)<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of ion that lost electrons (oxidation)<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an ion across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|278x98px]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
or <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|371x97px]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
where <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
E<sub>m</sub> is the potential difference of an ion between membranes<sub></sub><br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J mol<sup>-1</sup><br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between membranes (defined by the valency of ion)<br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion outside the membrane<br />
<br />
[A<sup>-1</sup>] is the concentration of ion inside the membrane<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
== Application ==<br />
<br />
=== Ussing Study of Frog Skin ===</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-14T21:38:08Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating ions. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
where <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br> <br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between cells (defined by the valency of ions)<br> <br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br> <br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of ion that gained electrons (reduction)<br> <br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of ion that lost electrons (oxidation)<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an ion across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation2.png|304x107px]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
or <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation3.png|439x115px]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
where</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Nernst_EquationNernst Equation2010-11-14T21:37:05Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div>= Nernst Equation<br> =<br />
<br />
'''Nernst Equation''' is an equation used to calculate the electrical potential of a chemical reaction. In its equilibrium state, the Nernst equation should be zero. It also shows the direct relation between energy or potential of a cell and its participating ions. The equation is proposed by a German chemist, Walther H. Nernst (1864-1941).<br> <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
== Equation ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation can be expressed as follows: <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst equation1.png|354x85px]] <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
where <br />
<br />
<br> <br />
<br />
E<sub>cell </sub>is the half-cell potential difference <br />
<br />
E<sup>θ<sub></sub></sup><sub>cell </sub>is the standard half-cell potential <br />
<br />
R is the universal gas constant; R = 8.314471 J K<sup>-1</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup> <br />
<br />
T is the thermodynamics temperature, in ''Kelvin''; 0 K = -273.15<sup>o</sup>C<br><br />
<br />
z is the number of moles of electrons transferred between cells (defined by the valency of ions)<br><br />
<br />
F is the Faraday's constant; F = 96,485.3415 C mol<sup>-1</sup><br><br />
<br />
[red] is the concentration of ion that gained electrons (reduction)<br><br />
<br />
[oxi] is the concentration of ion that lost electrons (oxidation)<br><br />
<br />
<br><br />
<br />
== Membrane Potential<br> ==<br />
<br />
Nernst equation is also can be used to calculate the potential of an ion across the membrane. For potential difference of a membrane, we can manipulate the Nernst Equation as follows:<br><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst_equation2.png|304x107px]]<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
or<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Image:Nernst_equation3.png|439x115px]]<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
where</div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/File:Nernst_equation3.pngFile:Nernst equation3.png2010-11-14T21:35:57Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div></div>090012763https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/File:Nernst_equation2.pngFile:Nernst equation2.png2010-11-14T21:35:32Z<p>090012763: </p>
<hr />
<div></div>090012763