Stem cell

From The School of Biomedical Sciences Wiki
(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
 
(16 intermediate revisions by 5 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
'''Stem cells''' are unspecialized cells which have a remarkable ability to differentiate to any type of body cells during early life and growth. There are two main types of stem cell; [[Pluripotent embryonic stem cells|pluripotent embryonic stem cells]] (ESC's) derived from the inner cell mass of the [[Blastocyst|blastocyst]] and adult stem cells which are found in differentiated tissues throughout the body and their role is to maintain and repair tissue cells. '''<references />''' Stem Cell Information, The national institutes of health resource for stem cell research. Available at: http://stemcells.nih.gov/. Accessed 20 of November 2010
+
Stem cells are unspecialized [[Cell|cells]] which have a remarkable ability to differentiate to any type of body cells during early life and growth. There are two main types of stem cell; [[Pluripotent embryonic stem cells|pluripotent embryonic stem cells]] (ESC) derived from the inner cell mass of the [[Blastocyst|blastocyst]] and adult stem cells which are found in differentiated tissues throughout the body, (such as [[Brain|brain]], [[Bone marrow|bone marrow]], [[Blood|blood]], [[Blood vessels|blood vessels]], [[Muscle|skeletal muscles]], [[Skin|skin]] and [[Liver|liver]]). Their role is to maintain and repair tissue cells<ref>Stem Cell Information, The national institutes of health resource for stem cell research. Available at: http://stemcells.nih.gov/. Accessed 20 of November 2010</ref>. After stem cells divide, the daughter cells can either remain as stem cells or differentiate into specialsed cells. Once stem cells become terminally differentiated they maintain their specialised character even if their environment changes<ref>Stem Cell Information, The national institutes of health resource for stem cell research. Available at: http://stemcells.nih.gov/. Accessed 20 of November 2010</ref><ref>What are stem cells from "Medical News today" which can be accessed at: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/stem_cell/</ref>. Another type of stem cell is totipotent, meaning they can differentiate into any kind of cell listed above in addition to placental tissue and other extra-embyonic tissue. Multipotent cells can differentiate into a specific cell type only, closely related to the cell itself. For example, hematopoetic stem cell are found in the blood marrow. They differentiate into many different types of blood cells ([[Red blood cells|red blood cells]], [[White blood cells|white blood cells]]). Lastly, [[Unipotent stem cells|unipotent stem cells]] cannot differentiate, they self-renew.
 +
 
 +
Stem cells can be used for therapeutic uses in order to treat different diseases and disorders such as [[Stargardt's disease|Stargardt's disease]]. This disease causes degeneration of the retina, leading to progressive loss of sight. This condition can be treated using healthy stem cells, in place of the dead retinal cells<ref>BioNinja; 2016; (http://ib.bioninja.com.au/standard-level/topic-1-cell-biology/11-introduction-to-cells/stem-cells-2.html)</ref><ref>Cafasso, Jacquelyn; Stem Cell Research; Healthline; reviewed by the University of Illinois, College of Medicine, April 6, 2016; (https://www.healthline.com/health/stem-cell-research#uses)</ref><ref>What is Stargardt's disease?; NIH- National Eye Institute; last reviewed April 2015;(https://nei.nih.gov/health/stargardt/star_facts)</ref>.
 +
=== References  ===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
<references />

Latest revision as of 10:19, 8 December 2018

Stem cells are unspecialized cells which have a remarkable ability to differentiate to any type of body cells during early life and growth. There are two main types of stem cell; pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and adult stem cells which are found in differentiated tissues throughout the body, (such as brain, bone marrow, blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscles, skin and liver). Their role is to maintain and repair tissue cells[1]. After stem cells divide, the daughter cells can either remain as stem cells or differentiate into specialsed cells. Once stem cells become terminally differentiated they maintain their specialised character even if their environment changes[2][3]. Another type of stem cell is totipotent, meaning they can differentiate into any kind of cell listed above in addition to placental tissue and other extra-embyonic tissue. Multipotent cells can differentiate into a specific cell type only, closely related to the cell itself. For example, hematopoetic stem cell are found in the blood marrow. They differentiate into many different types of blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells). Lastly, unipotent stem cells cannot differentiate, they self-renew.

Stem cells can be used for therapeutic uses in order to treat different diseases and disorders such as Stargardt's disease. This disease causes degeneration of the retina, leading to progressive loss of sight. This condition can be treated using healthy stem cells, in place of the dead retinal cells[4][5][6].

References

  1. Stem Cell Information, The national institutes of health resource for stem cell research. Available at: http://stemcells.nih.gov/. Accessed 20 of November 2010
  2. Stem Cell Information, The national institutes of health resource for stem cell research. Available at: http://stemcells.nih.gov/. Accessed 20 of November 2010
  3. What are stem cells from "Medical News today" which can be accessed at: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/stem_cell/
  4. BioNinja; 2016; (http://ib.bioninja.com.au/standard-level/topic-1-cell-biology/11-introduction-to-cells/stem-cells-2.html)
  5. Cafasso, Jacquelyn; Stem Cell Research; Healthline; reviewed by the University of Illinois, College of Medicine, April 6, 2016; (https://www.healthline.com/health/stem-cell-research#uses)
  6. What is Stargardt's disease?; NIH- National Eye Institute; last reviewed April 2015;(https://nei.nih.gov/health/stargardt/star_facts)
Personal tools
Namespaces
Variants
Actions
Navigation
Toolbox