Stereoisomers are a type of isomersism that has the same molecular formulae and the same connection of bonds but differ in the arrangement of the bonds in space.
There are two types of Stereoisomers-
Cis/Trans or E/Z- These require a double bond and different functional groups either side of the double bond. The double bond restricts the movement of the functional groups if the same functional groups are on the same side it is a cis or z isomer if they alternate they are a Trans or E isomer.
Optical Isomers- These require a chiral carbon (a carbon with 4 different functional groups attached) the way these functional groups are arranged it forms non-superimposable mirror images of each other. Each optical isomer has the same physical properties except the plane in which rotate to polarise light and how they interact with other optical isomers.
Stereoisomers are molecules that have the same molecular formula, but have a different spatial arrangement. This means that they are arranged differently in space, despite the fact the atoms are bonded in the same order. In order for this to occur, the molecule must contain a carbon that is bonded to four different groups, This is called a chiral centre, or an asymmetric carbon. Stereoisomers can be divided into further groups according to the specific spatial arrangements.
Enantiomers are stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other. They are usually described as having D or L configuration. Often one configuration exists more frequently in nature, for example, the L form of most amino acids is more prominent in nature, possibly because they are slightly more soluble than the D form. You can differentiate between the two forms by investigating the direction in which they rotate polarised light.
A racemate mixture contains equal amounts of enantiomers., therefore racemate mixtures are optically inactive because the enantiomers rotate a plane of polarised light by the same number of degrees in opposite directions.
Molecules that have multiple asymmetric carbons are called diastereoisomers. These are not mirror images of each other. A common example is a monosaccharide that has a carbon chain of three or more, such as glucose. The number of possible stereoisomers is equal to 2n, where n is the number of asymmetric carbons in the molecule. There are two further types of diastereoisomers - epimers and anomers. Epimers are two diastereoisomers that differ at only one of the multiple asymmetric carbons, whereas anomers are cyclic molecules that differ at a new asymmetric carbon that is formed as a result of the ring formation. E-Z or cis-trans isomerism is another type of diastereoisomers, resulting from the restricted rotation around a double bond.
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