Sterioisomers

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Stereoisomers are [[Molecules|molecules]] that have the same [[Molecular formula|molecular formula]], but have a different [[Spatial arrangement|spatial arrangement]]. This means that they are arranged differently in space, despite the fact the [[Atom|atoms]] are bonded in the same order. In order for this to occur, the molecule must contain a [[Carbon|carbon]] that is bonded to four different groups, This is called a [[Chiral centre|chiral centre]], or an [[Asymetric carbon|asymmetric carbon]]. Sterioisomers can be divided into further groups according to the specific spatial arrangements.
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See [[Stereoisomers|Stereoisomers]]
 
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== Enantiomers  ==
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[[Enantiomers|Enantiomers]] are stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other<ref>Naveen Chhabra, Madan L Aseri, and Deepak Padmanabhan1. A review of drug isomerism and its significance.Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2013 Jan-Jun; 3(1): 16–18.</ref>. They are usually described as having [[D isomer|D]] or [[L isomer|L]] configuration<ref>Sukanya Mitra and Puneet Chopra.Chirality and anaesthetic drugs: A review and an update.Indian J Anaesth. 2011 Nov-Dec; 55(6): 556–562.</ref>. Often one configuration exists more frequently in nature, for example the L form of most [[Amino acid|amino acids]] is more prominant in nature, possibly because they are slightly more soluble than the D form. You can differentiate between the two forms by investigating the direction in which they rotate polarised light.
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A racemate mixture contains equal amounts of [[Enantiomers|enantiomers]]<ref>Michael J. Owens, Jonathan McConathy. Stereochemistry in Drug Action.Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2003; 5(2): 70–73.</ref>, therefore racemate mixtures are optically inactive because the enantiomers rotate a plane of polarised light by the same number of degrees in opposite directions<ref>The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica.Racemate. 2011. [cited 27/11/18] Available from:https://www.britannica.com/science/racemate</ref>.&nbsp;
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=== References&nbsp;  ===
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<references />
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== Diastereoisomers  ==
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Molecules that have multiple asymmetric carbons are called [[Diastereoisomers|diastereoisomers]]. These are not mirror images of each other. A common example is a [[Monosaccharide|monosaccharide]] that has a carbon chain of three or more, such as [[Glucose|glucose]]. The number of possible stereoisomers is equal to 2<sup>n</sup>, where n is the number of asymmetric carbons in the molecule. There are two further types of diastereoisomers - [[Epimers|epimers]] and [[Anomers|anomers]]. Epimers are two diastereoisomers that differ at only one of the multiple asymmetric carbons, whereas anomers are cyclic molecules that differ at a new asymmetric carbon that is formed as a result of the ring formation. E-Z or cis-trans isomerism is another type of diastereoisomers, resulting from the restricted rotation around a [[Double bond|double bond]]<ref>Biochemistry, 7th Edition, Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko, Lubert Stryer, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 2012, chapter 11- page 331, chapter 2 - page 27.</ref>.
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=== References  ===
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<references />
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Latest revision as of 19:35, 27 November 2018

See Stereoisomers

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