Type 2 diabetes
What is Type 2 diabetes?
A disorder when insulin-producing cells, the Beta cells, in the islets of Langerhans (found in the pancreas) do not produce enough insulin, or when the insulin that is produced does not work properly (insulin resistance) because insulin receptors on the liver have been damaged or destroyed.
Who suffers from type 2 diabetes?
- Mainly people over the age of 40.
- People who are overweight.
- Individuals with high sugar intake
- Individuals who exercise less
Type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly common in children due to the increase in childhood obesity. The reason for this is because in this current generation, fast food is coming to the heights of consumption. Therefore, as children participate less in exercise and consume more fast food, their calorific intake will be higher than their calorific outake, leading to continuous weight gain and eventually obesity, thus leading to type 2 diabetes. Obesity can also lead to problems such as cardiovascular disease.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes
- passing urine more often than usual, especially at night
- increased thirst
- extreme tiredness
- unexplained weight loss
- genital itching or regular episodes of thrush
- slow healing of cuts and wounds
- blurred vision
- Insulin Resistance
Treatment of type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes can get worse over time. Initially it can be controlled through diet and exercise but eventually it may have to be treated with medications. Once such medication which is commonly used is Metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride). Metformin is a commonplace drug, which acts through switching on AMP kinase, which is turn decreases mTOR levels.
- ↑ Diabetes.org.uk Diabetes treatments - Diabetes UK In-text: (Diabetes.org.uk, 2014) Bibliography: Diabetes.org.uk, (2014). Diabetes treatments - Diabetes UK. [online] Available at: http://www.diabetes.org.uk/Guide-to-diabetes/What-is-diabetes/Diabetes-treatments/ [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014].
- ↑ Krisztina Kisfalvi, Guido Eibl, James Sinnett-Smith, and Enrique Rozengurt. Metformin Disrupts Crosstalk between G Protein-Coupled Receptor and Insulin Receptor Signaling Systems and Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Growth. Cancer Res. 2009 69(16):6539-45