Vaccine

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A vaccine will allow an organism's immune system to develop an active immunity against a certain pathogen. [1]

The vaccine will mimic the process of a natural infection, however the organism will not experience the effects of being infected by the pathogen. [2]

In order to safely develop active immunity, the pathogen must first be altered in some way so that it will not be damaging to the target organism.

Processes that will render the pathogen harmless include;

The vaccine (altered pathogens) is then inserted into the target organism. Its Immune system will respond as the vaccine is seen as a threat. Theimmune response will behave naturally and the vaccine will be destroyed, however the Memory T and Memory B cells will remember the pathogen's antigen structure. [4]

This will allow a rapid immune response if the organism ever comes into contact with the pathogen again. [5] However for T and B lymphocytes to develop it can take a few weeks, therefore it is possible that if someone is infected with the pathogen within a few weeks of getting them vaccine it is possible for them to have symptoms of the disease [6] [7].

References

  1. NHS.04/04/2014, How vaccines work, [Online]Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaccinations/pages/how-vaccines-work.aspx,[Accessed - 27/11/2014]
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.23/7/13, How Vaccines Work, [Online]Available at: http://www.vaccines.gov/more_info/work/ ,[Accessed - 27/11/2014]
  3. NHS.04/04/2014, How vaccines work, [Online]Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaccinations/pages/how-vaccines-work.aspx,[Accessed - 27/11/2014]
  4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.23/7/13, How Vaccines Work, [Online]Available at: http://www.vaccines.gov/more_info/work/ ,[Accessed - 27/11/2014]
  5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.23/7/13, How Vaccines Work, [Online]Available at: http://www.vaccines.gov/more_info/work/ ,[Accessed - 27/11/2014]
  6. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/patient-ed/conversations/downloads/vacsafe-understand-color-office.pdf
  7. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/patient-ed/conversations/downloads/vacsafe-understand-color-office.pdf
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