Water

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Water H<sub>2</sub>O constitutes of two [[Hydrogen|hydrogen]] atoms and a single [[Oxygen|oxygen]] [[Atom|atom]]. The [[Hydrogen|hydrogen]] atoms are linked to the oxygen atoms by [[Covalent bond|covalent bonds]]. When water [[Molecule|molecules]] interact with each other, the positively charged region ([[Hydrogen|hydrogen]] atom) of one water [[Molecule|molecule]] forms a weak [[Hydrogen bonds|hydrogen bond]] with the negatively charged region ([[Oxygen|oxygen]] atom) of a second water [[Molecule|molecule]]&nbsp;<ref>Alberts et al., Molecular Biology Of the cell, 5th edition, 2008, Garland Science, New York, pg 51</ref>.&nbsp;&nbsp;<br>  
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Water ( Molecular formula:H<sub>2</sub>O) constitutes of two [[Hydrogen|hydrogen]] atoms and a single [[Oxygen|oxygen]] [[Atom|atom]]. The [[Hydrogen|hydrogen]] atoms are linked to the oxygen atoms by [[Covalent bond|covalent bonds]]&nbsp;Since Oxygen has a much higher&nbsp;[[Electronegativity]]&nbsp;than Hydrogen, the distrubution of electrons is more dense towards the Oxygen molecule thus creating a slightly negative reigion.. When water [[Molecule|molecules]] interact with each other, the positively charged region ([[Hydrogen|hydrogen]] atom) of one water [[Molecule|molecule]] forms a weak [[Hydrogen bonds|hydrogen bond]] with the negatively charged region ([[Oxygen|oxygen]] atom) of a second water [[Molecule|molecule]]&nbsp;<ref>Alberts et al., Molecular Biology Of the cell, 5th edition, 2008, Garland Science, New York, pg 51</ref>. &nbsp;This is a hydrogen bond and although it isn't as strong as a covalent bond, it is highly stable and is responsible for the properties and thus abundance of water on Earth.<br>  
  
Water is a bent molecule there the distribution of charge is assymetric. As a result of the charged regions in water, water is a [[Polarity|polar]] molecule and can conduct electricity. Water molecules react with molecules in aqueous solution through the formation of [[Hydrogen bonds|hydrogen bonds and]] via ionic interactions. These interactions mean that water is a good solvent and can dissolve polar molecules and ions. Water has small molecules and is a liquid at quite high temperatures. It is also highly [[Cohesive|cohesive]]. Networks of [[Hydrogen bonds|hydrogen bonds hold]] the structure of ice and liquid water together. These interactions are responsible for the cohesion of water. Water is involved in many different reactions and can affect several [[Noncovalent bonds|noncovalent bonds with]] its presence. Examples of noncovalent bonds that the presence of water can affect are [[Electrostatic interactions|electrostatic interactions]], [[Hydrogen bonds|hydrogen bonds and]] [[Van der waals forces|van der Waals interactions]]. Furthermore when water cannot react with nonpolar molecules through hydrogen bonding or ionic interactions, the result is the [[Hydrophobic|hydrophobic effect that]] is accompanied by [[Hydrophobic|hydrophobic interactions]].<ref>Berg Jeremy M., Tymoczko John L., Stryer Lubert., (2007) Biochemistry, Sixth Edition, New York, W.H. Freeman and Company. P8-9</ref><br>  
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Water is a bent molecule there the distribution of charge is assymetric. As a result of the charged regions in water, water is a [[Polarity|polar]] molecule and can conduct electricity. Water molecules react with molecules in aqueous solution through the formation of [[Hydrogen bonds|hydrogen bonds and]] via ionic interactions. These interactions mean that water is a good &nbsp;and can dissolve polar molecules and ions. Water has small molecules and maintains its physical state of bein a liquid over a large range of temperatures.It is also highly [[Cohesive|cohesive]]. Networks of [[Hydrogen bonds|hydrogen bonds hold]] the structure of ice and liquid water together. These interactions are responsible for the cohesion of water. Water is involved in many different reactions and can affect several [[Noncovalent bonds|noncovalent bonds with]] its presence. Examples of noncovalent bonds that the presence of water can affect are [[Electrostatic interactions|electrostatic interactions]], [[Hydrogen bonds|hydrogen bonds and]] [[Van der waals forces|van der Waals interactions]]. Furthermore when water cannot react with nonpolar molecules through hydrogen bonding or ionic interactions, the result is the [[Hydrophobic|hydrophobic effect that]] is accompanied by [[Hydrophobic|hydrophobic interactions]].<ref>Berg Jeremy M., Tymoczko John L., Stryer Lubert., (2007) Biochemistry, Sixth Edition, New York, W.H. Freeman and Company. P8-9</ref><br>  
  
The basis of [[Life|life]], [[Humans|humans]] contain around 40 [[Litre|litres]] of water and&nbsp;both unicellular organisms and multicellular cells live in water.<br>  
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Humans contain around 40 [[Litre|litres]] of water and&nbsp;both unicellular organisms and multicellular cells live in water.<br>  
  
 
Many diseases are associated with water, for example excess water ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperhydration hyperhydration]), not enough water ([[Dehydration|dehydration]]) and many&nbsp;[[Microorganisms|microorganisms]] use water as a form of transport and spread through water, e.g. [[Cholera|Cholera]].<br>  
 
Many diseases are associated with water, for example excess water ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperhydration hyperhydration]), not enough water ([[Dehydration|dehydration]]) and many&nbsp;[[Microorganisms|microorganisms]] use water as a form of transport and spread through water, e.g. [[Cholera|Cholera]].<br>  
  
For example Tchaikovsky is thought to have died of [[Cholera|cholera]]: On 2 November 1893, he drank a glass of unboiled water. A few hours later, he had diarrhoea and started vomiting. The following day [[Anuria|anuria]] occured. He lost consciousness and died on 6 November&nbsp;<ref>Acta Med Hist Adriat. 2010;8(1):145-72. The cause of P.I. Tchaikovsky's (1840-1893) death: cholera, suicide, or both? Kornhauser P. Skapinova 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.</ref>.<br>  
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=== References:  ===
  
 
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Revision as of 15:41, 30 November 2012

Water ( Molecular formula:H2O) constitutes of two hydrogen atoms and a single oxygen atom. The hydrogen atoms are linked to the oxygen atoms by covalent bonds Since Oxygen has a much higher Electronegativity than Hydrogen, the distrubution of electrons is more dense towards the Oxygen molecule thus creating a slightly negative reigion.. When water molecules interact with each other, the positively charged region (hydrogen atom) of one water molecule forms a weak hydrogen bond with the negatively charged region (oxygen atom) of a second water molecule [1].  This is a hydrogen bond and although it isn't as strong as a covalent bond, it is highly stable and is responsible for the properties and thus abundance of water on Earth.

Water is a bent molecule there the distribution of charge is assymetric. As a result of the charged regions in water, water is a polar molecule and can conduct electricity. Water molecules react with molecules in aqueous solution through the formation of hydrogen bonds and via ionic interactions. These interactions mean that water is a good  and can dissolve polar molecules and ions. Water has small molecules and maintains its physical state of bein a liquid over a large range of temperatures.It is also highly cohesive. Networks of hydrogen bonds hold the structure of ice and liquid water together. These interactions are responsible for the cohesion of water. Water is involved in many different reactions and can affect several noncovalent bonds with its presence. Examples of noncovalent bonds that the presence of water can affect are electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. Furthermore when water cannot react with nonpolar molecules through hydrogen bonding or ionic interactions, the result is the hydrophobic effect that is accompanied by hydrophobic interactions.[2]

Humans contain around 40 litres of water and both unicellular organisms and multicellular cells live in water.

Many diseases are associated with water, for example excess water (hyperhydration), not enough water (dehydration) and many microorganisms use water as a form of transport and spread through water, e.g. Cholera.


References:

  1. Alberts et al., Molecular Biology Of the cell, 5th edition, 2008, Garland Science, New York, pg 51
  2. Berg Jeremy M., Tymoczko John L., Stryer Lubert., (2007) Biochemistry, Sixth Edition, New York, W.H. Freeman and Company. P8-9

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