Xenophagy

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Xenophagy is the process of Autophagy by which cytosolic or vacuole-dwelling pathogens are degraded[1]. These pathogens are recognised non-specifically by their lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan outer layers and are resultantly engulphed into autophagosomes (double-membraned organelles)[2]. This autophagosome migrates to and fuses with a lysosome, releasing its contents into the lysosome where they are then hydrolysed by degradative enzymes[3].

Xenophagy plays a key role in innate immunity - pathogens can be recognised by general pathogenic characteristics and destroyed before they cause infection in cells, thus an immune response is not required[4].

References

  1. Leigh A. Knodler and Jean Celli. Eating the strangers within: host control of intracellular bacteria via xenophagy. Cell Microbiol. 2011. 9, 1319-1327
  2. Leigh A. Knodler and Jean Celli. Eating the strangers within: host control of intracellular bacteria via xenophagy. Cell Microbiol. 2011. 9, 1319-1327
  3. Cell Research: Yuchen Feng, Ding He, Zhiyuan Yao & Daniel J Klionsky: The machinery of macroautophagy: 2013 [cited 20/11/2018] Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/cr2013168#abstract
  4. Leigh A. Knodler and Jean Celli. Eating the strangers within: host control of intracellular bacteria via xenophagy. Cell Microbiol. 2011. 9, 1319-1327
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