Cadherin proteins

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Cadherin proteins are Ca2+ ion dependant transmembrane adhesions proteins found on the plasma membrane of epthelial tissue, muscle tisse and nervous tissue because cadherin only can be found in that type of tissues. they are required to link the cytoskeleton of one cell to that of it's neighbour[1].

The cadherin superfamily have several copies of extracellular domains; the classical E-cadherin has 5 copies whereas some non-classical cadherins have more than 30[2]. These extracellular domains also have an N-terminal tips which bind homophillically to other cadherin molecules from adjacent cells. Calcium ions are needed to keep the cadherin structures rigid (forming a slightly curved rod-like structure) they bind near each hinge between domains.If there is no Calcium ion in the hinge region of extracellular domain, the extracellular domain of cadherin will be floppy and there is no interaction between the each cell in extracellular. Each individual cadherin-cadherin bond is relatively weak binding with low affinity; it is only the strength in numbers that form the strong attachments[3]. Cadherins are essential for allowing cells of similar type to stick together as they are responsible for highly selective recognition; they are therefore fundamental in cellular differentiation and organisation of tissues during development[4].

References

  1. Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K., Walter, P. (2015). Molecular Biology of the cell (Sixth ed.). Garland Science.
  2. Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K., Walter, P. (2015). Molecular Biology of the cell (Sixth ed.). Garland Science.
  3. Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K., Walter, P. (2015). Molecular Biology of the cell (Sixth ed.). Garland Science.
  4. Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K., Walter, P. (2015). Molecular Biology of the cell (Sixth ed.). Garland Science.
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