Chloramphenicol

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Chloramephenicol (2,2-dichloro-N-[1,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-nitrophenyl)propan-2-yl]acetamide) is an antibitotic used to treat eye infections, penicilllin resistant meningitis, cholera and typhoid. It explotes the fact that it has a similiar structure to a peptide bond and binds to the bacterial ribosome where peptide bonds are made. This prevents peptide bonds forming. It prevents protein chain elongation by inhibiting the peptidyl transferase activity of the bacterial ribosome. Some bacteria as with many antibiotics have developed resistance and produce an enzyme called chloramephenicol acetyl transferase which inactivates the chloramphenicol ensuring the survival of the bacterial.

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