Chromosome territories

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Chromosome territories are specific regions occupied by chromosomes in the nucleus during interphase. First developed by Carl Rabl (1853-1917) in his paper ‘Über zelltheilung, 1885’,‘Rabl orientation’ was confirmed later in 1982 by C. Cremer (1944-) and T. Cremer (1945-) using 'premature chromosome condensation and laser-UV-microbeam experiments' using 'Chinese hamster cells.'[1] Recent technological advances such as Fish[2] has shown all eukaryotic organisms territories are typically 1-2 µm in diameter and irregularly shaped with sub-domains made of individual chromosome arms.[3] As well as this, chromatin folding into 'fractal globule' shapes allows distinction between chromosome territory and easy access for replication molecules plus easy unfolding for specific genes.[4] Gene dense chromosomes also tends to occupy regions near the centre of the nucleus whereas less gene dense chromosomes occupies regions near the peripheral of the nucleus [5]. Neighbouring chromosomes can interact with each other and due to this interaction chromosomes are rendered immobile.[6] However, it has become aware that chromosome arrangement in a cell is dependent on cell type/organism/tissue/if diseased and thus we are still unable to predict position.[7]

References

  1. Cremer, T., Cremer, C., Baumann, H., Luedtke, E.K., Sperling, K., Teuber, V., Zorn, C., 1982, Rabl's model of the interphase chromosome arrangement tested in Chinese hamster cells by premature chromosome condensation and laser-UV-microbeam experiments., Human Genetics, 60(1), pp46-56. Available at: fckLRhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00281263
  2. Available explanation at: http://www.genome.gov/10000206
  3. Misteli, T., 2008, Chromosome territories: The arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus., Nature Education 1(1):167. Available at: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/chromosome-territories-the-arrangement-of-chromosomes-in-3025
  4. p235, Hartl, D.L., Ruvolo, M., et al. 2012, Genetics: Analysis of Genes and Genomes, 8th ed., Jones and Learning
  5. p236-237, Hartl, D.L., Ruvolo, M., et al. 2012, Genetics: Analysis of Genes and Genomes, 8th ed., Jones and Bartlett Learning
  6. Misteli, T., 2008, Chromosome territories: The arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus., Nature Education 1(1):167. Available at: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/chromosome-territories-the-arrangement-of-chromosomes-in-3025
  7. Misteli, T., 2008, Chromosome territories: The arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus., Nature Education 1(1):167. Available at: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/chromosome-territories-the-arrangement-of-chromosomes-in-3025
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