Poland Syndrome

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Poland syndrome is a rare birth defect that occurs in approximately 1 in 100000 to 1000000 individuals[1]. Named after Sir Alfred Poland who first described the syndrome, it can manifest in many different forms but the most common are an underdeveloped or missing right pectoris major muscle and underdeveloped right hand with symbrachydactyly, a combination of branchydactyly, syndactyly and underdeveloped (vestigial) fingers[2]. In females, it results in an underdeveloped right breast. For reasons unknown, it affects male more frequently than females and occurs more often on the right side of the torso. Although the exact cause is unknown, most researchers believe that it is due to an interrupted blood flow during the sixth week of embryotic growth. Some researchers have suggested that it may be genetic because in very rare cases, familial inheritance had been observed[3]. Diagnosis includes CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)[4]. The disorder may be treated with reconstructive surgery or plastic surgery[5]

References

  1. Poland Syndrome, John Mersch, 12 September 2016, viewed on 3 December 2016, http://www.medicinenet.com/poland_syndrome/article.htm
  2. Poland Syndrome, April 2016, viewed on 3 December 2016, https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/poland-syndrome#
  3. Poland Syndrome, viewed on 3 December 2016, https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/poland-syndrome/
  4. Poland Syndrome, John Mersch, 12 September 2016, viewed on 3 December 2016, http://www.medicinenet.com/poland_syndrome/article.htm
  5. Poland Syndrome, John Mersch, 12 September 2016, viewed on 3 December 2016, http://www.medicinenet.com/poland_syndrome/article.htmfckLRfckLRPoland Syndrome, viewed on 3 December 2016 https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/poland-syndrome/
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