The Calvin Cycle fixes CO2 to produce carbohydrates. It is a set of redox reactions.  Three ribulose bisphospate molecules fix three CO2 molecules, producing six molecules of of 3-phosphoglycerate; this is then reduced to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate using a phosphate group from ATP, producing ADP as a by-product. This, in turn, is reduced to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by the oxidation of NADPH to NADP+ and an inorganic phosphate. One out of every six GP molecules goes on to synthesise a carbohydrate, whilst the other five regenerate ribulose bisphospate to allow the cycle to continue. The five GP molecules are converted to five molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phospate, which then form 3 molecules of ribulose-5-phosphate. The ribulose-5-phosphate is then reduced via the reduction of ATP to ADP to reform the original 3 molecules of ribulose bisphospate. The Calvin Cycle occurs in the stomata of photosynthesising organisms, and was named after Melvin Calvin, who received a Nobel Prize in 1961 for his work on the subject.
- ↑ Hardin J. et al, Becker's world of the cell 8th edition, Boston, Benjamin Cummings: page 309
- ↑ Alberts B. et al, Molecular Biology of the Cell 5th edition, 2008, New York, Garland Science : page 845
- ↑ Hardin J. et al, Becker's World of the Cell 8th edition, 2012, Boston, Benjamin Cummings: page 311
- ↑ Alberts B. et al, Molecular Biology of the Cell 5th edition, 2008, New York, Garland Science: page 845
- ↑ Hardin J. et al, Becker's World of the Cell 8th edition, 2012, Boston, Benjamin Cummings:page 309