Coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) acts as an electron carrier in metabolic pathways. The oxidised form, FAD, is made up of a flavin mononucleotide unit and an AMP unit. Within the flavin mononucleotide unit is an isoalloxazine ring, derived from the vitamin riboflavin, which can accept two electrons to become the reduced form, FADH2. In it's reduced form FADH2 is in a higher energy state due to the instability of it's structure compared with that of the aromatic ring structure of FAD. Therefore, oxidising FADH2 is an energy releasing process.
- ↑ Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L., Stryer, L. (2011) Biochemistry. 7th Edition. Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.