Motor protein

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A motor protein is a protein that uses energy from the hydrolysis of high energy molecules called nucleotide triphosphates e.g. ATP. This energy is used to move the protein along a linear track, for example, a protein filament in the cytoskeleton[1].

Examples

Myosin is a motor protein associated with the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton or in muscle. The globular head of the myosin binds to ATP which is hydrolysed to produce the energy required for movement. There are two types of myosin, myosin I and myosin II, myosin I is found in all cells and only one head move cargo down actin, on the other hand, myosin II is found in muscle cells and two globular heads are present[2].

Kinesin is a motor protein associated with the microtubules of the cytoskeleton, similarly to myosin they also have a head and a tail region, the head binds to the microtubule and ATP and the tail binds to the cargo for transport[3].

Dyneins are motor proteins that drive the movement of the cilia and flagella. Dyneins can cause filaments to slide past each other causing a beating movement, as in cilia, or they can cause the filaments to bend as in the flagella[4].

References

  1. Alberts molecular biology of the cell fifth edition G:24
  2. Alberts molecular biology of the cell fifth edition p1010-1019
  3. Alberts molecular biology of the cell fifth edition p1010-1019
  4. Alberts molecular biology of the cell fifth edition p1031-1033

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