Gonorrhea

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Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted diseases. It is caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Bacterial infections occur in the reproductive tracts of both male and females and is passed on by anal, oral or vaginal sexual intercourse. Infection can also occur in the mouth, throat, anus and eye.

Contents

Symptoms

The symptoms of gonorrhea vary slightly in males and females and usually present from 1 day after contraction of the infection to 14 days after. However it is not common for the infection to show no symptoms.[1]

In males the symptoms may consist of:

In females:

Testing

A nucleic acid amplification test is the recommended method of testing for gonorrhoea. This is a molecular test that detects the DNA of N. gonorrhoeae (the bacteria that causes the disease). It is more sensitive and specific than other gonorrhea tests and can be performed on a vaginal swab on women, or urine from both men and women, which eliminates the need for a pelvic exam in women.

Another test to detect gonorrhoea involves growing the bacteria, which is known as a gonorrhea culture. In men, a quick method is the gram stain, which allows the healthcare practitioner to look at a sample from the urethra for the presence of the bacteria using a microscope. While this method can diagnose gonorrhea, it is not sufficient to rule out an infection in asymptomatic men. This method is not reliable for women since other bacteria normally found in the female genital tract will look the same under the microscope[2]

Treatment

The N. gonorrhoeae bacterial infection can be treated with antibiotics such as Amoxicillin or Ampicillin. However some strains are resistant to Penicillin so other forms of antibiotics may be taken.It is best to contact your local GP if any of the above symptoms presist due to the presense of strains of the bacteria that are have developed antibiotic resistance.

If the infection is not quickly diagnosed and treated complications may occur leading to serious health problems and ultimately infertility[3]. However the best way to restrain from contacting this disease is to restrain from multiple sexual partners and practice safe sex.

Reference

  1. http://www.avert.org/gonorrhea.htm
  2. https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/gonorrhea/tab/test
  3. http://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/stdfact-gonorrhea.htm
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