Human genome

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The human genome is the entire genetic material that is found within Homo sapiens[1]. The genome comes in the form of a DNA code that is found as 23 linear chromosomes; all of which are found within the nucleus of every haploid cell, and smaller sequences that are found in Mitochondria[2]. The genome’s DNA contains approximately (20,000-25,000) protein-encoding genes, as well as introns and sections associated with DNA regulation[3]. Around 99.9% of every humans’ genome is identical, with the other 0.1% accounting for the variation between individuals[4].

The genome was first fully sequenced collaboratively in 2003 by the Human Genome Project[5]. As of 2014, multiple individuals have had their genomes sequenced and so has led many to believe genome sequencing could one day become a part of every day clinical analysis. Sequencing the human genome allows specific identification of the genetic causes of a disease and so allows for the possibility of personalised treatment.

Even though the genome is almost completely sequenced, not everything is understood about it. For example, the exact number of genes is still not known, or even whether certain sections of DNA are in fact genes; only about 1.5% of the entire genome is completely known to be associated with protein-encoding genes[6].

References

  1. Science Daily-Accessed from :http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/h/human_genome.htm On [19-11-2014]
  2. Natural Human Genome Research institute- Accessed from -http://www.genome.gov/26524120 Accessed [19-11-2014] Edited [8-05-2012]
  3. Science museum-Accessed from http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/WhoAmI/FindOutMore/Yourgenes/Whatwasthehumangenomeproject/WhatdidtheHumanGenomeProjectfind/Howmanygenesdoyouhave.aspx Acccessed [19-11-2014]
  4. National Human Genome Research institute -Accessed from-http://www.genome.gov/17516714 Accessed [19-11-2014] Edited [15-07-2011]
  5. Science Museum- Accessed from http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/whoami/findoutmore/yourgenes/whatwasthehumangenomeproject.aspx Accessed [19-11-2014]
  6. Cold Spring Harbor laboratory-DNA Learning Center- Accessed from- http://www.dnalc.org/resources/3d/09-how-much-dna-codes-for-protein.html Accessed [19-11-2014]
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